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Abstract Detail

Paleobotanical Section

Salvi, Amanda [1], Smith, Selena Y [2], Benedict, John [1], Leong-Škorničková, Jana [3], Specht, Chelsea [4].

Leaf Architecture in Gingers and Relatives (Zingiberales).

Zingiberales are an order of monocot flowering plants comprising more than 2500 species in eight different families: Musaceae (bananas), Heliconiaceae (heliconias), Strelitziaceae (bird-of-paradise), Lowiaceae (Orchidantha), Cannaceae (canna lilies), Marantaceae (prayer plants), Zingiberaceae (gingers), and Costaceae (spiral gingers). Zingiberales typically grow in tropical to subtropical habitats, with the greatest diversity in Asia. In order to better understand the evolution, ecology and phylogeny of the order, study of the leaf architecture of both extant and extinct Zingiberales has been undertaken. Leaf laminae (entire or sub-samples) of over 50 extant species across all eight families were cleared, stained, and photographed with a stereomicroscope. Leaf architecture, shape, traits of veins and areoles of the leaves as well as total vein length per area (VLA), VLA for parallel veins, and VLA for cross veins were investigated. Well-preserved leaf fossils of Zingiberopsis were also studied for the same features. Leaf blades of Zingiberales are simple, elliptic to ovate to lanceolate, and have a costa from which parallel longitudinal veins diverge that are connected by cross veins. Four primary types of vein patterns were observed. Lowiaceae are distinct in having cross veins that run through multiple parallel veins; Costaceae, Marantaceae, and Cannaceae have closely-spaced cross veins forming long, rectangular areoles with the long axis perpendicular to the longitudinal veins; Zingiberaceae, Strelitziaceae, and Heliconiaceae have rectangular areole shapes with the long axis parallel to the longitudinal veins; Musaceae have square areoles. Additionally, trichomes were observed on leaves of some Zingiberaceae, Marantaceae, and Costaceae. Longitudinal veins arising de novo and/or longitudinal veins ending in cross veins were found in some Zingiberaceae, Marantaceae, Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, and Strelitziaceae. Anastomosing/dichotomising cross veins were observed in Costaceae, Marantaceae, and Lowiaceae, and rarely in Zingiberaceae. Free ending cross veins were observed in Marantaceae, Lowiaceae, and Costaceae, and rarely in Zingiberaceae. VLAs of the whole order ranged from 1.9-21.4 mm mm-2. Musaceae had the highest mean total VLA (11.6 mm mm-2), while Costaceae and Zingiberaceae had the lowest (3.7 mm mm-2). Strong positive relationships were found between total VLA and VLA parallel veins in Zingiberaceae, Heliconiaceae, and Strelitziaceae, and between total VLA and VLA cross veins in Musaceae, Marantaceae, and Costaceae, which reflects their tightly packed cross veins. Multiple leaf characters of Zingiberales are useful in distinguishing between groups, demonstrating that leaves can provide another source of data for understanding this group of plants and its enigmatic leaf fossil record.

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1 - University of Michigan, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Ave., 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
2 - University of Michigan, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences and Museum of Paleontology, 1100 North University Ave., 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
3 - National Parks Board, Herbarium, Singapore Botanical Gardens, Singapore
4 - University Of California Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, MC 3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA

vein length per area

Presentation Type: Poster:Posters for Sections
Session: P
Location: Eyrie/Boise Centre
Date: Monday, July 28th, 2014
Time: 5:30 PM
Number: PPB006
Abstract ID:702
Candidate for Awards:None

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