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Abstract Detail

Systematics Section/ASPT

Benedict, John C. [1], Smith, Selena Y [2], Collinson, Margaret [3], Leong-Škorničková, Jana [4], Specht, Chelsea [5], Fife, Julie L. [6], Marone, Federica [6], Xiao, Xianghui [7], Parkinson, Dula [8].

Investigating morphological and anatomical diversity of Zingiberales seeds with new insights from previously unstudied taxa.

The Zingiberales are a monophyletic order of tropical to subtropical monocots comprising eight families with over 100 genera and ~2500 species that include many well-known edible (bananas, gingers, tumeric) and ornamental plants (canna lilies, heliconias, bird-of-paradise, prayer-plants). Taxa within the order share many apomorphies, including supervolute ptyxis, diaphragmed air chambers in leaves and stems, and inferior ovaries. The families have been divided informally into the poorly supported and paraphyletic 'banana' families (Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae and Heliconiaceae) and strongly monophyletic 'ginger' families (Costaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cannaceae, Marantaceae) based on both morphological and molecular data. These studies have traditionally used vegetative and floral characters, whereas seed characters have been underutilized. This may be due in part by the general lack of information of seeds besides more common taxa of the order and a general lack of consensus in descriptive terminology used previously. Therefore, a broad survey has been conducted for all eight families to analyze the morphoanatomical variation that exists in the group, and determine if novel and phylogenetically significant characters exist. Over 150 species have been examined to date using both standard light microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to visualize seeds in 3D. Traditional characters used in phylogenic studies include the presence or absence of an aril, well-developed perisperm, and endosperm. However, many other characters including operculum shape and structure, seed coat structure, and the presence or absence of a chalazal chamber, a micropylar collar, and/or a hilar rim are also potentially useful and have not been previously considered. This broad survey will demonstrate which characters are homoplasious and which are phylogenetically significant. The latter may aid in resolving the poorly supported phylogenetic relationships within extant Zingiberales, as well as provide a framework for determining the phylogenetic significance of the rich carpological fossil record of Zingiberales. 

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1 - University of Michigan, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 1100 North University Ave., 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
2 - University of Michigan, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences and Museum of Paleontology, 1100 North University Ave., 2534 CC Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
3 - Royal Holloway University of London, Department of Earth Sciences, Egham Hill, Egham, TW20 0EX, UK
4 - Singapore Botanic Gardens, Herbarium, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
5 - University Of California Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, MC 3102, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA
6 - Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, Switzerland
7 - Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue , Argonne, IL, 60439, USA
8 - Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Advanced Light Source, 6 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA

Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy

Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Session: 13
Location: Pines South/Boise Centre
Date: Monday, July 28th, 2014
Time: 5:00 PM
Number: 13014
Abstract ID:769
Candidate for Awards:None

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